TO READING INTERVENTIONS USING MULTITIER SYSTEM SUPPORTS
THE GOAL: IT IS COMPULSORY UPON GENERAL EDUCATION CLASSROOMS TO PROVIDE SYSTEM SUPPORTS FOR STUDENTS WHO STRUGGLE IN READING DEVELOPMENT AND LITERACY ATTAINMENT.
Each school will provide continual student data-driven assessment and provide Multitier System Supports (MTSS also known as RTI-Response ot Intervention) beginning in kindergarten for every student who struggles to meet monthly learning benchmarks. Intervention will be brovided quickly and as needed for each student's reading literacy attainment.
MTSS are imperative for students' attainment of reading and subject-area literacy and achievement of state standards.
- The major instructional strategies of MTSS utilize individualized data to determine the intensive and multi-component methods appropriate for each student's reading, writing, and spelling proficiency.
- MTSS are guided by student assessment in general education classrooms and deliver tiers of instruction and intervention to individuals and analogous groups of students, allowing those who struggle with various aspects of learning to become proficient readers, writers, and users of the English language.
- In grades K through 3, MTSS are designed for teachers of reading to scaffold instruction in small class settings at the first sign that a student or students are falling behind in lesson accomplishment. In grades 4 through 12, both teachers of reading and content-area taechers provide tiers of instruction and intervention to individuals and analogous groups to obtain subject-matter literacy.
Program Criteria for MTSS Standards for SEEDS in Grades PK-3
Each state must systematically address the academic needs of all of SEEDS by implementing research-based MTSS.
|Essential elements of a successful reading intervention include:
|1. Early screening, assessment, and identification of SEEDS in grades PK-3
|1. Instruction and tiers of support delivered intensively in the areas of weakeness in reading development skills
|1. Intense instruction and intervention delivered by a highly qualified and certified teacher of reading
|1. Sufficient duration of intervention until proficiency is reached in all reading development
MTSS in Grades K-3
The terms MTSS refers to a comprehensive system of differentiated supports including evidence-based instruction, universal screening, progress monitoring, formative and summative assessments, research-based interventions matched to student needs, and educational decision-making using academic progress overtime.
|Principles of Multitier System Supports (MTSS)|
|1. Assumption and belief that all students can learn to read at grade level
||2. Early intervention for students who demonstrate risk for literacy failure
||3. Use of a multitier model of service delivery
|4. Use of a problem-solving or standard-protocol method to make decisions within a multitier model in general education
||5. Use of research-based, scientifically validated interventions/instruction to the extent available
|6. Monitoring of student progress to inform instruction
||7. Use of data to make decisions
|Principles of Multitier System Supports (MTSS) for SEEDS who struggle in the area of reading:|
|Tier I - Foundational Reading Instruction should involve:|
|1. The use of a scientifically-based instructional program for all students
||2. Ongoing assessment of progress and monitoring of reading achievement gains
|3. Teachers of reading using flexible grouping to target specific skills and differentiate instruction for all students|
|Tier II - MTSS Intervention components: |
|1. Intended to meet the needs of SEEDS who do not respond quickly to foundational reading instruction skill development|
|2. To be provided in a regular classroom setting|
|3. Students will receive intensive small group reading instruction based on areas of skill weakness|
|4. To ensure adequate advancement and learning, student progress must be monitored at least every two weeks to be analyzed, interpreted, and documented|
|5. A set of goals for each student will be identified and established|
|- Students who meet set criteria on targeted skills as a result of Tier II Interventions are reintegrated into the regular classroom setting (Tier I)|
|- If the student's progress shows no advancement and/or the student demonstrates characteristics associated with learning disorders at any time during or after the student's Tier II Intervention (maximum of 10 weeks), the teacher of reading shall recommend a formal diagnostic assessment for the student.|
|Tier III - MTSS Intensive Instruction components:|
|1. Involves a small percentage of students who received Tier II Intervention and continue to show marked difficulty in acquiring the reading development necessary to reach grade-level proficiency|
|2. Intensive instruction that is more explicit and specifically designed to meet their individual needs. |
|3. Progress monitoring at least every two weeks on targeted skills to ensure adequate progress and learning|
|4. Approximate time for Tier III Intensive Instruction is 8-10 weeks|
|- After this intensity of instruction the student can return to Tier II Intervention support before reintegration into the regular classroom setting (Tier I)|
|- If the student's progress shows no advancement and/or the student demonstrates characteristics associated with learning disorders at any time during or after the student's Tier III Intensive Intervention, the teacher of reading shall recommend a formal diagnostic assessment for the student.|
Grades 4-12: Reading Interventions and Strategies
In middle school it is important to establish a school culture that recognizes that every content area teacher is a reading teacher, because reading is involved in every subject area.
Reading strategies will be implemented as a schoolwide program in connection with a school culture and vision that work toward high levels of student achievement in reading literacy.
Specific interventions and strategies will be provided to support SEEDS
|Each school will provide SEEDS with demonstrated reading difficulties 26 to 32 weeks of supplemental reading interventions that directly address their vocabulary, comprehension, and word reading challenges. To help support identification and MTSS:|
|1. Students who are more than one grade level behind in reading must receive specific interventions daily. Through diagnostic assessment, teachers can determine which of the following are contributing to the reading difficulties and target their instruction:|
|A. Word reading problems
||B. Word meaning problems
||C. Inadequate knowledge to understand text
|D. Unusually slow text reading
||E. Inadequate use of reading comprehension strategies to promote reading comprehension
|2. Target instruction for each student by providing systems of support in three tiers with an outline of assessments of skill accomplishments and a timeline for stages of support|
|3. During Tier I Intervention for Grade 4-12 students who need intervention in word study, a certified teacher of reading provides students with approximately 25 lessons taught over 7-8 weeks depending on student mastery. Students' mastery determines their progress through the lessons. Lessons will include:|
|A. Daily instruction and practice with individual letter sounds, letter combinations, and affixes.
||B. Instruction and practice in applying a strategy to decode polysyllabic words by breaking them into known parts
||C. Practice breaking words into parts to spell.
||D. Daily word-reading strategies to apply reading in context in the form of sentences and passage-reading
||E. Fluency instruction that promotes use of oral reading fluency data and pairing higher and lower readers for partner reading
|F. Daily student engagement in repeated reading with their partner with the goal of increased accuracy and rate fluency
||G. Modeling and providing feedback to students
||H. Daily vocabulary
||I. Comprehension during and after reading
||J. Teachers assisting students in locating information in text and rereading to identify answers
|4. During Tier II Intervention for Grade 4-12 students who need intervention with vocabulary and comprehension, a certified teacher of reading provides students with lessons over 17-18 weeks depending on student mastery. Students' mastery determines their progress through the lessons. Lessons will include:|
|A. Daily review of the word study strategies learned in Tier I by applying the sounds and strategies to reading new words
||B. Focus on word meaning
||C. Word relatives and parts of speech
||D. Application of word study for spelling words
|E. Vocabulary words chosen from the text read in the fluency and comprehension component
||F. Fluency and comprehension with an emphasis on reading and understanding text through discourse or writing
||G. Content and vocabulary to understand the text prior to reading
||H. Instruction in generating questions of varying levels of complexity and abstraction while reading
|1. Tier III Intervention continues the instructional emphasis on vocabulary and comprehension with more time spent on independent student application of skills and strategies. Tier III occurs over approximately 8-10 weeks.|
|Each content-area teacher will identify key content subject words for each student to learn and will teach at least two new words every day and review one from the previous day. There are several ways that these words can be taught, including:|
|1. Using vocabulary maps that use the key word, pictures of the word, words that relate to the key word, a student friendly definition, and how the word can be used in a historical context
||2. Illustrating, showing a picture that represents the word, or reading one or two sentences that include the word, describing it in ways that allow students to make informed decisions about word meaning.
||3. Teaching key words within the context of a debate or structured discussion in which students use those key words in their written and oral arguments
|Teachers should ask students to ask questions while they read and after they listen to the teacher read as they follow the text so that they will monitor comprehension and learning. |
|Teachers must teach word meaning strategies within content-area classes. Research supports two practices for helping students learn academic vocabulary:|
|1. Teachers provide explicit instruction of academic or concept words that students need to learn to master the key ideas they are teaching. Teachers need to work with students to discuss what the word means and doesn't mean.
||2. Teachers provide instruction in word-learning strategies. One means of equipping students to understand the content area terms they encounter is to teach the component morphemes (prefixes, roots, and suffixes) and how they contribute to the meaning of words. Another word-learning strategy involves teaching word meanings directly through the use of a mnemonic word association and a picture that ties together the word clue and the definition.
|Teachers must instruct students how to build and activate appropriate background knowledge for understanding text content. Research supports the following strategies for building background knowledge:|
|1. Teach students to use text to support answers and consider whether they can locate text-based support for positions
||2. Teach students to elaborate on why statements that they select can or cannot be supported based on the text
|Teachers must teach students to use reading comprehension strategies while reading complex text. Research supports the following strategies for building reading comprehension:|
|1. Teach students to generate questions while reading to build comprehension skills. |
|2. Teach them how to generate main idea statements for single or multiple paragraphs. Students who are successfully taught this concept will be able to use the following three steps to generate a main idea statement:|
|A. Identify who or what is the focus of the paragraph or section
||B. Determine the most important information about what the key person place/thing has, is, or does
||C. Succinctly state the who or what and most important information about him/her/it in a sentence
|Teachers must guide and engage students in text-related activities through classroom discussion and written assignments. Research supports the following strategies for encouraging reading for understanding:|
|A. Discussion in small groups that allows students the opportunity to return to texts a number of times to explore, discuss, and revise their developing understanding of the ideas and concepts. Each student in the small group will have a specific role.
||B. Explicitly instruct students in how to summarize text.
|Teachers must maximize all opportunities for students to read a range of printed material. Research supports the following strategies to enhance opportunities for students to read and respond to text:|
|A. Prepare students to read text by providing key ideas and key words.
||B. Provide daily opportunities for students to read for a specific amount of time, then, provide a prompt for student response.
||C. Have students participate in partner reading and have them take turns reading the same passage.
|Teachers should organize students into collaborative groups for reading tasks. Research supports the following strategies for collaborative groups:|
|A. Having students utilize Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR). The two importance phases for CSR are (1) learning the four reading comprehension strategies and (2) teaching students to use cooperative groups effectively as a means of applying the strategies.
||B. Teachers should assign approximately 4 students to each CSR group to create a well-functioning team. Teachers assign students to roles, which rotate on a regular basis, in the group and teach them to perform their role.
||C. The teacher's role in CSR, while students are working in their groups, is to ensure the students have been taught their role and know how to implement their responsibility.
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